Indonesia, located between the eastern end of Mediterranean Volcanic Belt and western side of the Circum-Pacific Volcanic Belt makes the archipelago surrounded by active margins which are the locations of tectonic and volcanic activity. More than 200 volcanoes form “The Ring of Fire” along Sumatra, Java, Bali and the eastern islands of Indonesia which act as hot spots and at the same time store heat energy, so that Indonesia becomes a country that is blessed with abundant geothermal resources. The Indonesian Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources (ESDM) states that Indonesia’s geothermal energy potential is estimated at 40% of the total potential around the world, or around 28,617 MW.
Indonesia as part of the world ring of fire (Source: www.britannica.com/place/Ring-of-Fire)
The word “geothermal” comes from the Greek, “geo” which means earth and “thermal” which means heat. The heat flow and temperature distribution observed at the earth’s surface are caused by the release of heat due to the cooling of the earth itself as well as the heat produced by subsurface radioactivity. These conditions are then supported by certain geological setting that support the formation of a geothermal system. The term ‘geothermal system’ is used to describe the transfer of natural heat within a confined volume in the earth’s crust where heat is transported from a “heat source” to a “heat sink”, usually free surfaces. The majority of geothermal systems in Indonesia are hosted by strato-volacanoes type of young mountain areas associated with the system of quarterly volcanism and magmatic intrusion.
Until the end of 2019, Indonesia has 2,133 MW installed capacity or only 7% of the total geothermal potential has been utilized as electricity. They are spread in 16 power plant (PLTP) in 8 provinces. The government is determined to suppress fossil-based energy and encourage a massive increase in renewable energy (EBT) power plants (included geothermal) which is targeted to mix 23% by 2025. In particular, geothermal development in 2025 is targeted to reach 7,241.5 MW.
Geothermal Power Plant in Indonesia as of December 2019
Renewable Energy Development Prospects (Source: Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources)